How Did the Passenger Pigeon Go Extinct? [The Surprising Truth!]

The Passenger Pigeon was once one of North America’s most abundant bird species. However, its population drastically declined in the 19th century, and the species became extinct in 1914. This article will discuss the causes of the passenger pigeon’s extinction and how human activity has impacted species extinction since then.

What are the Causes of the Extinction of passenger pigeons?

Despite their once-abundant numbers, the passenger pigeon became extinct in the early 20th century due to a combination of factors, including:

Hunting: The passenger pigeon was a prominent game bird hunted extensively for food and fun. In addition, the species was hunted for its feathers, which were used to embellish hats and other apparel. Overhunting was a major factor in the passenger pigeon’s decline and ultimate extinction.

Loss of habitat: For breeding and roosting, the passenger pigeon relied heavily on big, undamaged forests. The passenger pigeon’s habitat became more fragmented as the human population in North America rose, and more land was converted for agriculture and other purposes. The lack of habitat led to the species’ demise.

Disease: It is conceivable that illness contributed to the passenger pigeon’s extinction. The species was previously linked to various illnesses, including Newcastle disease and avian influenza. However, it is unclear to what degree illness may have contributed to the species’ decrease.

Overall, hunting and habitat loss were the primary reasons for the passenger pigeon’s demise. These causes and the species’ weak capacity to adjust to changing environments led to the passenger pigeon’s extinction.

why the passenger pigeon became extinct
why the passenger pigeon became extinct

Historical Context: When and Where were Passenger Pigeons Found?

The passenger pigeon, also known as Ectopistes migratorius, was a kind of pigeon that was previously common in most of North America. The species was well-known for its migratory tendencies, with flocks numbering in the millions at times. With records reaching back to the early 1600s, the passenger pigeon was a familiar sight in the eastern United States and Canada. The species was discovered as far west as the Great Plains and south as Florida.

The passenger pigeon was a very friendly and gregarious animal, with flocks that were sometimes characterized as a “moving cloud” owing to their enormous size. Despite formerly being numerous, the passenger pigeon became extinct in the early twentieth century owing to overhunting and habitat degradation. Martha, the last known passenger pigeon, died at the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914.

Human Impact: Laws and Regulations that Failed to Protect Passenger Pigeons 

The greatest human influence on the passenger pigeon was extensive shooting for food and recreation and habitat degradation for agriculture and other uses.

Despite attempts to safeguard the passenger pigeon, rules and regulations have been generally ineffectual in halting the species’ demise. Several states in the United States implemented legislation prohibiting the killing of passenger pigeons in the early 1900s. Still, these laws were not effectively enforced and did not sufficiently conserve the species.

Furthermore, the passenger pigeon was protected by the Migrating Bird Treaty Act of 1918, which restricted migratory bird hunting, ownership, and transit in the United States. This regulation, however, came too late to preserve the passenger pigeon, which had already been destroyed by overhunting and habitat degradation.

Overall, the inability to appropriately safeguard the passenger pigeon was caused by a misunderstanding of the value of conservation and the effects of human activity on the natural environment. The passenger pigeon is often used as a warning symbol.

The Last Passenger Pigeon 

Martha was the last passenger. Martha was born in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1885 and died there on September 1, 1914.

Overhunting and habitat loss were among the reasons that led to the extinction of the passenger pigeon. Martha’s death signalled the end of a species that had previously numbered in the billions. Despite attempts to safeguard the species, rules and regulations have mostly failed to prevent its extinction.

Martha’s death was much lamented, and her remains were preserved and are now on exhibit at the National Museum of American History of the Smithsonian Institution. Martha is now a symbol of the perils of overhunting and habitat devastation, as well as the value of conservation. The passenger pigeon acts as a warning about the effects of human activity on the natural world.


Passenger pigeons were historically prevalent in North America, with flocks numbering millions. Despite formerly being numerous, the passenger pigeon became extinct in the early twentieth century owing to overhunting and loss of habitat. The passenger pigeon’s extinction is a poignant reminder of the influence that human activities may have on the natural world.

The passenger pigeon’s fall and ultimate extinction serve as a cautionary tale about the need for conservation and the perils of overhunting and habitat damage. It serves as a reminder of the need to protect and preserve the planet’s biodiversity and consider the effects of human activities on the natural environment. The passenger pigeon serves as a reminder of how important it is to safeguard and preserve the natural environment for future generations.

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